GLUT4 is insulin‐dependent and is responsible for the majority of glucose transport into muscle and adipose cells in anabolic conditions. Glut1 is the day-to-day glucose transporter responsible for basal gl The GLUT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-3, etc. Continue reading >>, Abstract: Despite evidence to the contrary, there is a widespread misconception that cells cannot take up glucose without insulin. Hexosamines have a negative feedback effect on GLUT4, and reduced GLUT4 activity decreases insulin-mediated glucose uptake. 2005. GLUT4 is insulin-sensitive and it is the predominant glucose transporter in the muscle and adipose tissue. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, … GLUT localization was confirmed by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, and total GLUT protein expression was measured by Western blotting. Diabetics should continue to use insulin as prescribed by their doctor. It has little clinical significance. Abstract. GLUT – 4, 8 & 12: Insulin-dependent Glucose transporters. Collectively, our data suggest that, in contrast to GLUT4, insulin does not mediate GLUT12 translocation, which Continue reading >>, Giovanni Messina 1 , 4 Filomena Palmieri 1 , Vincenzo Monda 1 , Antonietta Messina 1 , Carmine Dalia 1 , Andrea Viggiano 2 , Domenico Tafuri 3 , Antonietta Messina 1 , Fiorenzo Moscatelli 4 , 5 , Anna Valenzano 4 , Giuseppe Cibelli 4 , Sergio Chieffi 1 and Marcellino Monda 1 * 1 Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Clinical Dietetic Service, Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy 2 Faculty of Medicine, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy 3 Department of Motor Sciences and Wellness, University of Naples "Parthenope", Naples, Italy 4 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy 5 Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome Foro Italico, Rome, Italy Received date: May 14, 2015, Accepted date: July 27, 2015 Published date: August 3, 2015 Citation: Messina G, Palmieri F, Monda V, Messina A, Dalia C et al. Patients manifest with intractable seizures in infancy and a developmental delay. Most abundant Glucose transporter in RBC. There are about 13 different gluts, and the one that needs insulin is glut4 (possibly 12, also). insulin and exercise are the two most physiologically relevant stimulators of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Here we discuss the current understanding of how exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake is regulated. Rose AJ and Richter EA). Do you want to read the rest of this article? Continue reading >>, Introduction Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease in which the body’s ability to handle glucose is impaired compared with people without diabetes.1-3 The normal handling of glucose in the body includes the actions of glucose uptake, metabolism, and storage by cells and tissues of multiple organs, including muscles, liver, fat, brain, and kidney.3,4 Insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways in glucose regulation While the pancreas plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, many other organs are involved using both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways.3,5 Many organs play a role in glucose homeostasis, using both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent processes3,5 Insulin-dependent mechanisms: Blood glucose is regulated in part by insulin-dependent mechanisms that involve multiple organs and tissues.3 • In the pancreas, beta cells secrete insulin in response to increasing blood glucose levels.2 – Insulin facilitates the transport of glucose into cells, reducing blood glucose levels.2 – Insulin also reduces hyperglycemia by promoting energy storage through stimulating the conversion of glucose into glycogen (glycogenesis) and through promoting lipogenesis.2 • In muscle and fat, insulin binding to insulin receptors activates transport of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) molecules to the cell membrane, facilitating the uptake of glucose into the cells.5 • In the liver, insulin regulates blood glucose levels by suppressing hepatic glucose output and increasing postprandial glucose storage in the form of glycogen.2 • In adipose tissue, insulin helps in the synthesis and storage of glucose in the form of triglycerides.2 Insulin-independent mechanisms: Insulin-independent mechanisms also play a role in blood glucose regulati While acute regulation of muscle glucose uptake relies on GLUT4 translocation, glucose uptake also depends on muscle GLUT4 expression which is increased following exercise. 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