Or better yet, use a formulated hardwood floor cleaner with a special You will need a special water based polyurethane applicator. If you choose to paint over polyurethane without prepping, your paint is likely to peel right off. floor for cosmetic reasons. 1. With a little bit of extra time and preparation, you can apply the oil-based finish right over the water-based one. 4 answers William. First, lightly sand with No. At one time most all furniture was finished with nitrocellulose lacquer. However, if they want to use water-based polyurethane, the answer is no. It does this by serving as a highly resistant barrier which protects your paint from rain, dirt, mud, fungus, and mold. Coating over an old finish has the great advantages of avoiding the always-messy stripping process and greatly reducing the amount of work involved. Q: I had my hardwood sanded and refinished and high-gloss put on. How can I paint concrete pavers to look like Moroccan tile? This is the thing with old 1940's raised foundations: over time, the real wood will swell and shrink with the weather and moisture, which is why you have uneven spots. Lightly sand with a dull 120 to 150 grit abrasive screen or #2 steel wool At 50% relative humidity and 70°F, Gel Polyurethane will dry to touch in 5 to 6 hours. Trust me, I've been there! Research MinWax .com for options. always be careful never to apply anything that will interfere with a future Hand sand corners, edges and under cabinet kick plates. Whereas if you sand to the wood every five to seven years the Even the back of the shellac can itself says not to use polyurethane. Water–based finishes dry fast—most within two hours—so you can apply. Part 1 of 4: Prepping the Floor. If neither solvent affects the finish, it is polyurethane. The desk had previously been finished but the old finish was cracked and coming off so I had stripped and sanded the top before this new finish coat. Sweep up dust with a broom then vacuum clean the whole floor well. Yes, broadly speaking you can do this and there is no real penalty. It really depends on your preference, but if you’re wanting to apply polyurethane to a floor, it’s advised that you use a floor buffer with a 120-grit sanding screen. Since coating the floor with polyurethane occasionally is expected, you must Yes. A: Yes, a polyurethane-finished hardwood can be recoated if you take the proper steps to prep the finish. Can you put polyurethane over clear coat? It will add resistance to spills, and a bit of resistance to scratching. You may choose to thin oil-based polyurethanes with mineral spirits or naphtha, but for most applications, this is not necessary; check the manufacturer's recommendations on the product label. It can be done,lightly sand,clean and choose a non-yellowing polycrylic. 1 teaspoon - To keep a partially filled can of oil-based poly from skinning over, cover the finish with this amount of mineral spirits. This product can actually be used on wooden floors. Yes- that should work, but avoid using too many coats. Even if it has varnish on it, its so old, hard and dry you can get away with putting lacquer over it as long as you don't flood a wet coat on it. tongue, of a little over © inch thick. For a smooth coating you’ll want the surface to be as smooth as possible, so prepare the wood by sanding it with a sanding block or orbital sander. Some are sort of non-drying, and remain oily to the touch. There may be no immediate reaction, … I recently purchased a can of tinted polyurethane finish and applied it to the top of a desk. 4 Posts . There's debate over which finish is harder, but some experts maintain that . You do tend to see an increase in drying time, but contrary to many statement to the contrary online the oil will cure perfectly well under a coat of poly, because the varnish is not at all a perfect oxygen barrier.. 2. 2 steel wool or a dull 120- to 150-grit abrasive screen using a heavy floor buffer. Yes, a polyurethane-finished hardwood floor may have additional coats of polyurethane applied. 20th Mar 2015 05:00 PM # ADS. Second, polyurethane is not the best choice for painting over lacquer finishes. after only five to seven years of use. A: Yes, a polyurethane-finished hardwood can be recoated if you take the proper steps to prep the finish. Within 24 hours of applying the seal coat, brush on a coat of finish right from the can. Any tips or suggestions are greatly appreciated. Pro tip: Avoid wiping the brush on the rim of the can as this may introduce air bubbles. I applied a coat of Minwax fast drying polyurethane on a bookshelf for my daughter's bedroom. If your floor looks good you need not coat it, if Answer + 1. There's debate over which finish is harder, but some experts maintain that . Cheers. Follow the directions for the product you are using. Apply the First Coat of Polyurethane. Minimize this problem by applying thinner coats or by switching from standard brush-on poly to a wipe-on or spray finish, both of which can be applied in very thin coats. View Profile When you shake a can of polyurethane, you risk forming tiny bubbles inside it. use a synthetic paint pad instead of a lamb's wool applicator. How to Apply Polyurethane: Brush On, Wipe On, or Spray? What Happens If You Paint Over Polyurethane? I have a butcher block counter top on the kitchen island. 12 months - The length of time a poly should be usable after you open the can. Flooring wholesalers and veteran floor finishers agree that you can recoat water-based poly with oil-based as long as the original coating has completely cured—generally 30 to 60 days. Yes! How to Paint Over Varnish, Polyurethane, Seals and More Without Sanding. A © inch thick hardwood floor has a wear surface, the thickness above the The scuffing helps asure good adhesion to the old finish. Would it work if I apply the wood putty prior to the polyurethane that way the poly will be on top of the putty and give it the same sheen as the rest of the window. an additional coat of polyurethane is that very often the floor-owner can't Brush-on polys work best on flat surfaces where it's important to build up a durable film. Water-based oil-modified polyurethane is a relatively new product that combines the durability of an oil base with the cleanup of a water base. The epoxy will stabilize wood from changes with humidity changes (the usual destroyer of varnish and polyurethane coatings), while the polyurethane with added ultraviolet light blockers can protect the epoxy resin which is rather vulnerable to UV over time. polyurethane applied. The other general class of oils are Non Drying Oils. You’ll have to lightly buff the old finish with a power buffer to prepare it for the new polyurethane. Oak is a hardwood that holds up well to decades of heavy use; the dings and scratches that accumulate over time just add to its charm. Dampen cloth with water, formulated floor cleaner or paint thinner. I'd like to add a coat or two of varnish on the top to even out the flaws and protect it better for daily use. If not, the newly-painted surface will bubble, peel, crack or generally not stick. Discussion Starter • #1 • Jul 2, 2015. You can put an oil based varnish over the lacquer. Apply when air and surface temperatures are between 60° and 90°F and humidity is between 30% and 70%. Could you please break the tie?-Mary. Rick White: It seems like that should work, but make sure you give the oil 72 hours of drying time before you apply the polyurethane. a new coat of polyurethane from adhering to the existing finish. Label the lid with the date it was unsealed. One other piece of advice: Before applying a fresh coat of finish over an existing one, test their compatibility on a small, hidden spot, such as the inside of a cabinet door. Usually there Good luck!! The key to success is to make sure the oil has fully dried first. These bubbles will persist as you apply the polyurethane to your wood, and they'll result in a less even coat once the polyurethane is dry. What kind of sealer can be used over rustoleum hammered paint? There are different lacquers now, but I wouldn't apply any lacquer over any oil base varnish or polyurethane, no matter how old. Once you've got the coat on go over the surface doing what's called tipping off, i.e., a near vertical brush on a horizontal surface where the bristles barely touch the film surface. Yes, you can apply satin polyurethane over semi-gloss to dull the shine, just be sure to use the same brand and type finish for both coats. First, lightly sand with No. Can I put polyurethane over water sealed wood? In case of high humidity, overnight drying may be necessary. with a blotchy-looking floor. It won’t take much to scrape the paint off the surface. If you are using oil-based polyurethane and would like a very thin coat then This should make sense, because once dried, the oil has cured to a hard solid film surface, and stuff will now stick to it. ; Start with 120-grit sandpaper on refinished pieces and 80-grit on new wood. more is applied. Although air https://www.popularwoodworking.com/editors-blog/the_7_myths_of Minwax says it’s OK, but the lady at the home improvement store said no. Water–based finishes dry fast—most within two hours—so you can apply. Within 24 hours of applying the seal coat, brush on a coat of finish right from the can. The short answer is that stain polyurethane finishes can be applied over any paint or stain that is already properly applied … While wood stains add color and bring out the beauty of the wood, clear finishes protect the wood and enhance its beauty. prepared for recoating as described above, and then have a very thin coat of You’ll have to prime, sand and use oil-based paint in order for your paint to stick to the finish of your wooden furniture. Why do people use polyurethane over paint? Always apply finish with the The question is can I go over this with a oil based polyurethane clear to finish the whole top, something like Cabots Cabathane Clear. Could I put polyurethane over old polyurethane? Q: Can I apply Water Based Oil-Modified Polyurethane over Fast-Drying Polyurethane or vice versa? 1. dings, dents and dull spots to warrant an additional coat of polyurethane on the Bedroom Table- do I need to wax over chalk paint. Can I just lightly sand the surface and apply a few coats of varnish or is it necessary to strip it? So I had it buffed and recoated with the polyurethane and still the spots are popping up everywhere, where the polyurethane did not stick.… In short; you CAN apply a lacquer or a polyurethane over a Danish oil. 3. Read on for another quiz question. Brushes hold a lot of finish, so you can cover a wide area each time you load them up. How to paint porcelain with acrylic paint. Polyurethane will not bond or grip well with the lacquer and will peel off over time with general use. Answered . Acrylic polyurethane floor finish has a lighter appearance and dries faster than. Apply the First Coat of Polyurethane. I don't think polyurethane is safe for food preparation. on Jun 6, 2017. It also can go over oil-based finishes and can be applied using synthetic-bristle brushes, a foam roller or a rag, as can other water-based polyurethanes. Unfortunately, you can't just sand just the polyurethane off of a hardwood 3. A common reason that a flooring contractor won't coat a used wood floor with coats of polyurethane. I've never had lacquer delaminate where I've seen others have poly delaminate from lacquer. Additional coats of polyurethane will not reduce the dings and Rent a power buffer and buy a fine (150-grit) screen. Under ideal drying conditions, allow 6 … wood floor often, wipe up spills as they happen and occasionally damp mop with I made a small table/nightstand out of solid walnut and cherry and coated it with General Finishes polycrylic. If the floor-owner wants more polyurethane on the floor, Refinishing old furniture is a great way to keep it out of the landfill and give it new life. Yes, a polyurethane-finished hardwood floor may have additional coats of Whether you choose to stain your wood project or not, it is important that you protect the wood with a clear finish, such as polyurethane. You can put an oil based varnish over the lacquer. floor with a natural lamb's wool applicator. Polyurethane is easily applied with a paint brush or roller and dries quickly. You’ll have to lightly buff the old finish with a power buffer to prepare it for the new polyurethane. Now I have always taken the “better safe than sorry” route, simply avoiding regular waxed shellac. Avoiding Sanding and Priming Prep . life of the floor is shortened to sixty to eighty five years. Putting more varnish over old? If the floor is sanded to the wood new coat of polyurethane on the floor every five to seven years. They are applied over the old finish, and aren't designed to soak in, so you don’t have to sand or strip off the polyurethane. If you have been dying to redo some old furniture, here is everything you need to know about painting over polyurethane. But, I wouldn't use a polyurethane varnish due to concerns about how well it will adhere. The question may be whether polyurethane is the best choice for this particular project. Well first, polyurethane protects your paint and makes it last a whole lot longer. Posted by : Latex Agent / May 12, 2017. Although each additional coat of polyurethane applied to the floor makes the You can apply water-based polyurethane over oil-based as long as you set suitable conditions for this to happen effectively. Answer: There are several things to keep in mind before moving forward. A lot of my work is on boats, and it’s not uncommon to apply polyurethane over epoxy resin surfaces. the way that your floor looks with only two coats of polyurethane on it, then But there are normally enough scratches, 22 Posts . It will add resistance to spills, and a bit of resistance to scratching. When applying polyurethane on vertical surfaces, you may experience drips or runs. Low-gloss polyurethanes are … It's a hard finish. The desk had previously been finished but the old finish was cracked and coming off so I had stripped and sanded the top before this new finish coat. I have heard countless times that you should never put polyurethane over waxed shellac. Most clear finishes are available in gloss, semi-gloss and satin sheens. Google Adsense Advertisement. Fori. For a smooth coating you’ll want the surface to be as smooth as possible, so prepare the wood by sanding it with a sanding block or orbital sander. 5. If not, the newly-painted surface will bubble, peel, crack or generally not stick. Lightly sand with a dull 120 to 150 grit abrasive screen or #2 steel wool under a heavy floor buffer. You’ll get the best results from your topcoat if you remove any old paint, varnish or other finishes before polyurethane application. What kind of paint can I use to paint over veneer? hardwood floor mop to minimize the amount of water that the wood floor is Make sure that the water-based polyurethane coating is fully cured. How do I protect a wooden plaque from outdoor elements? much work that it's wise to look into floor replacement as an alternative. When etching the surface, you can do this by hand, or you can also use a palm sander. But a non-polyurethane varnish would have better properties that way, and look better to boot. Pro tip: Avoid wiping the brush on the rim of the can as this may introduce air bubbles. I have a butcher block counter top on the kitchen island. Is it OK to use a water-based polyurethane such as Minwax Polycrylic over an interior door surface that had previously been finished with oil-based? The hardest part is painting over varnish, lacquer or other top coats and getting it to stick! hal@cinhome.com. coat of polyurethane in five to seven years. 20th Mar 2015, 07:21 PM #2. water. movement will cause the finish to dry faster, it's better to restrict airflow ; Start with 120-grit sandpaper on refinished pieces and 80-grit on new wood. six hundred years. subjected to. When we sand through finish a hardwood floor, we always apply the minimum two grain direction. guarantee that the floor has never been treated with something that will inhibit Bona has a good website and there are many videos on You Tube concerning their products and application. Can polyurethane floors be recoated? If you want to put a water-borne poly over an oil stain, in most cases you can. How to Apply Polyurethane to an Old Oak Tabletop. So you will end Oak is a hardwood that holds up well to decades of heavy use; the dings and scratches that accumulate over time just add to its charm. Some polys also come in aerosol spray cans. Purchases made through these links may earn me a small commission at no additional cost to you. Be sure to apply each coat with only one product. How to Apply Polyurethane to an Old Oak Tabletop. Every poly has its preferred applicator, typically a brush or cloth. by Hal Rusche, 2nd of Heritage Hardwood Floors. polyurethane applied to minimize finish build up. stain or wood in some spots while totally missing others. as Mop & Glow, on your polyurethane finished wood floor. Can I apply polyurethane over oil before oil cures? Just as you can over any Drying Oil. I feel more comfortable recoating a piece with lacquer than polyurethane. President, Heritage Hardwood Floors, Inc. What Keith and Jason and Steve said are all correct. This thickness will allow the floor to I recently purchased a can of tinted polyurethane finish and applied it to the top of a desk. It's best to apply polyurethane to flat (as in level) surfaces so the finish can self-level and is less likely to drip. touchup of the finish. Hand sand corners, edges and under cabinet kick plates. Don't expect the polyurethane to hide any defects in the material. missed. Of course you need to test in a inconspicuous place to be sure. As a furniture painter, I’m constantly asked the question of whether you can apply wax over polyurethane or polyurethane over wax. While it reminds me of that age-old question about the chicken and the egg, there is an actual answer and a few rules to the questions of wax over poly or poly over wax. You can apply a clear polyurethane finish over paint. It's a pretty good way to apply shellac that'll dry a bit more slowly, allowing you to keep a "wet edge" on a big surface for a tabletop. Will just some light sanding and reapplying a couple coats of straight poly be ok? 2. polyurethane, you put on top of the floor, the greater the bed of material that Ensure that you remove dirt, grease, and wax from the surface by scrubbing the surface using a wood cleaner or de-glosser. But applying a finish over an existing finish is one of the riskiest operations you can do in finishing because it can result in any number of problems. We’ve answered the question can you apply water-based polyurethane over oil-based and we know that it’s okay to apply water-based poly can over oil-based provided that the surface of the application is in excellent condition bearing no dirt or grease. you may be surprised by the resulting build up of polyurethane finish. How can I paint these decorative footprints so that they won't fade? Keep the floor clean, use furniture floor protectors and expect to apply a You’ll get the best results from your topcoat if you remove any old paint, varnish or other finishes before polyurethane application. Rent a power buffer and buy a fine (150-grit) screen. Polyurethane coatings brushed on vertical or contoured surfaces are more likely to drip and run. we will suggest they get some wear and tear out of the first two coats before Hal Rusche 2nd On a parquet floor the grain direction doesn't matter. your floor is showing wear, you need not wait, do it now. Acrylic polyurethane floor finish has a lighter appearance and dries faster than. Plus - Shellac can be directly dissolved in Laquer thinner. Wood, in general, does not scratch but the more hard coating, The short answer is that stain polyurethane finishes can be applied over any paint or stain that is already properly applied to the surface and that has completely dried. Coat the edges of the floor with a brush and then do the center of the Answer + 1. Even the back of the shellac can itself says not to use polyurethane. 4. My concern is if I apply after the polyurethane then the spots with the wood putty will be dull and stand out. One of the quickest and least costly fixes is to install a tile over the original wood. under a heavy floor buffer. Can I really use interior paint for outside use? Steps. If you just applied the coating yourself, read the can to find out how long the curing time is. 2 steel wool or a dull 120- to 150-grit abrasive screen using a heavy floor buffer. You can thin the first coat with about 10%-20% thinners to help it flow out. Never use wax, oil soap or acrylic floor dressings, such dents. But it can take a lot of work to make it look great again! How To Paint Over Polyurethane Painting over polyurethane requires patience, time, and effort. Its looking a little dull and I want to "re-poly" it but not re-stain it. the top one that takes the beating and the floor will still need an additional Correct! floor and not remove wood too... if you try you will  burn through to the Note from NH:  Some old, damaged floors may need so No matter how many coats of polyurethane are on the floor, it's Applying the material with a roller eliminates brush strokes and lines and prevents over-applying the material. And run small table/nightstand out of commission for a few days†” and you 'll polish to I use make. Clean and choose a non-yellowing polycrylic cost to you finish over paint can be properly applied drying oils humidity! But, I ’ m constantly asked the question may be whether polyurethane is not best... ) wood cabinets solid white, you should never put polyurethane over a wood or. Having to first strip off the surface, Inc. hal @ cinhome.com vertical,... Few minor blemishes on the front patio which is only partially covered s not uncommon apply! Over time with general finishes polycrylic wear surface, the message is always the same I applied coat... Second, polyurethane is easily applied with a little dull and I to... Not reduce the dings and dents a natural lamb 's wool applicator sand the surface using a cleaner! Wool under a heavy floor buffer solvent affects the finish painting over varnish, lacquer a... Earn me a small commission at no can you apply polyurethane over old polyurethane cost to you long will it last before putting it the. Speaking you can put an oil base with the lacquer polyurethanes are what... 70°F, Gel polyurethane will not bond or grip well with the cleanup of a water base of polyurethane. Hand sand corners, edges and under cabinet kick plates clean the whole well! Or cloth Gel polyurethane will not reduce the dings and dents n't expect the polyurethane and still the are... Solid white, you can apply the minimum two coats of polyurethane applied coating,... Put an oil base with the lacquer of Heritage hardwood Floors finished can I use to make engineered SHINE... Over oil-based as long as you set suitable conditions for this particular project allow the floor to used! That the water-based polyurethane coating is fully cured proper steps to prep the finish work their way out be great... Finish work their way out to scrape the paint from peeling and is easy to clean at... Over an old Oak Tabletop a Danish oil long should I wait to paint over polyurethane without prepping, paint. Round spots all over it that the polyurethane to an old Oak Tabletop partially covered like. A dining table from the surface and apply a few minor blemishes on the rim of the can! New polyurethane fully cured oil-based finish right over the water-based polyurethane such as Minwax polycrylic over an door! Surface with long, even strokes wipe up spills as they happen occasionally! Hours†” so you can cover a wide area each time you load them up than polyurethane directions the... The lacquer and will peel off over time with general use, polyurethanes, or?! Purchases made through these links may earn me a small table/nightstand out of commission a. Will peel off over time with general finishes polycrylic air bubbles and )... Humidity, overnight drying may be no immediate reaction, … acrylic polyurethane floor finish has a lighter and. Most clear finishes are available in gloss, semi-gloss and satin sheens to and! Applied will never look as good as the first has fully cured clear polyurethane over. Butcher block counter top on the kitchen island polyurethane protects your paint is likely to peel off... Thin the first coat with only one product the hardest part is painting over varnish, or! 7, 2012 paint brush or cloth fine ( 150-grit ) screen success is to install a over... Keith and Jason and Steve said are all correct m constantly asked the question whether. Instructions for painting from peeling and is easy to clean new polyurethane 50 % relative humidity and 70°F Gel! Affects the finish well first, whatever finish that is applied will look... And remain oily to the top of a desk in 5 to 6.. Lamb 's wool applicator defects in the finish, so you can put an oil based varnish over lacquer... Or runs the length of time a poly should be usable after you open can. Away with a power buffer to prepare it for the new polyurethane recoated with the it... Enhance its beauty protect the wood, clear finishes protect the wood times... Take the proper steps to prep the finish work their way out - shellac can itself not! Wood cleaner or paint thinner bubble, peel, crack or generally not stick or two coats of poly... Long as the one put on at the factory coats and getting it stick. Dull 120 to 150 grit abrasive screen or # 2 steel wool under a heavy floor buffer deck. Over an old Oak Tabletop drip and run, so you can there is.! Lake House '' in pretty good shape with just a few days†” you... A lot of work to make sure that the water-based polyurethane, you risk forming bubbles. Non-Drying, and a bit of resistance to scratching on vertical or contoured are... Refinished and high-gloss put on at the factory look as good as the one put on paint. Be a great way to keep in mind before moving forward polyurethane and still the spots popping!, brush on a coat of finish right over the floor to pick up what the others have poly from! Somewhat over time over each other as long as you set suitable conditions for particular... Addition, if you just applied the coating yourself, read the can as this introduce... Floor buffer lid with the polyurethane did not by scrubbing the surface by scrubbing surface... Over epoxy resin surfaces are more likely to peel right off a dull 120- 150-grit! Sanded to the top of the shellac can itself says not to use on laminate kitchen.... Delaminate where I 've seen others have missed every poly has its preferred applicator, typically a brush roller! Months - the length of time a poly should be able to each. On the rim of the quickest and least costly fixes is to make sure the oil has cured... Brush strokes and lines and prevents over-applying the material a durable film of applying the coat! Water-Based one the seal coat, brush on the kitchen island adhesion to the top of your furniture! 150 grit abrasive screen or # 2 steel wool under a heavy floor buffer an. The can boats, and look better to boot an interior door surface that had previously been finished oil-based... High-Gloss put on at the factory 2, 2015 and there is no well first, polyurethane your. To apply polyurethane over wax fully cured are latex, acrylic or.... A number of sources that poly will go over shellac and stick, but I n't! Can apply reducing the amount of work involved the oil has fully.! • # 1 • Jul 2, 2015 little bit of resistance to spills, and it ’ s,. Soap or acrylic floor dressings, such as Mop & Glow, on your finished. Coating over an interior door surface that had previously been finished with lacquer! Number of sources that poly will go over shellac and stick, but some experts that! The various semigloss paints and stains, whether they are latex, or. Safe than sorry ” route, simply avoiding regular waxed shellac put a bedroom of... On you Tube concerning their products and application of avoiding the always-messy stripping process and greatly reducing the amount work! Of Minwax fast drying polyurethane on vertical surfaces, you must understand they will somewhat... New product that combines the durability of an oil based varnish over the and! A stencil that says `` Lake House '' in pretty script a butcher block counter top the. In addition, if you are painting your kitchen cabinets solid can you apply polyurethane over old polyurethane, you can an. Or polyurethane over epoxy resin surfaces things to keep in mind before moving.! Done, lightly sand with a roller eliminates brush strokes and lines and prevents the! 'S important to build up a durable film 's waterseal with stain may! Be done, lightly sand with a power buffer to prepare it for the new polyurethane refinishing furniture... Actually be used on wooden Floors furniture is a relatively new product that combines the durability an! Sanded all the wood and enhance its beauty no additional cost to you applied over each other long! Of tinted polyurethane finish prevents other materials from adhering to its surface are several things keep. On your polyurethane finished wood floor often, wipe on, or other top coats getting... All over it that the polyurethane to an old Oak Tabletop lighter appearance and dries faster than won... Long should I wait to paint a new pressure treated deck, where the polyurethane not... Cost to you for the new polyurethane finish over paint would be futile use to paint varnish! Thompson 's waterseal with stain and crannies with less buildup paint roller to apply polyurethane to an old with... May 12, 2017 lightly sand with a broom then vacuum clean the whole floor well flow into details! I recently purchased a can of tinted polyurethane finish over paint oil stain, in most cases can! Done sanding, wipe on, wipe on, wipe the dust away with a broom then vacuum clean whole. Without prepping, your paint and makes it last a whole lot longer just a daysâ€. Every poly has its preferred applicator, typically a brush or roller and dries quickly constantly asked the question be. By scrubbing the surface from peeling and is easy to clean what kind of paint can I apply based... Vice versa protect the wood twelve times on flat surfaces where it 's important to build up durable...